Loanword

What is loanword?

Contents

Definition

Difference betweem borrowing and inherting

Classes

The Process of word's borrowing

The rasons for English's vast borrowing

Loanwords in English

Rhymes with loanwords

References

External Links

Definition

Loanwords are words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language (the source language). (1)The loanword is a word taken from another language into one language with little or no translation. A loanword can also be called a borrowing. The abstract noun borrowing refers to the process of speakers adopting words from a source language into their native language. Loanwords are far less than the original words in most languages.


Difference between borrowing and inherting

Borrowing

Borrowing is the appropriation of words from another source. It is when words or phrases adopted to a language from any other language differ from the ancestral language.

Inherting

Most words of the vocabulary of a language are inherited from its ancestral language. Those inherted words are always not changed very much and the original words of the language are not considered to be borrowing.


Classes

Certain classes of loanwords are more common:
Function words: Words like prepositions, pronouns, determiners, conjunctions, modal verbs, primary verbs, words referring to universal concepts, are usually not borrowed.
Exotic words: Certain classes of words are more commonly borrowed than others, usually words for exotic concepts or ideas.

The process of words' borrowing

The exchange of words is the most common way that one language influence the other language. The process is complex and involves, many usage events. Generally, when speakers of different languages interact closely, then the words will added into another language. Some speakers of the borrowing language know the source language too, or at least enough of it to utilize the relevant words.(3) Those new words first be used are not widely known. At this stage most speakers do not know the new words and these words always be called foreign words.
However, as time goes by, more speakers are becoming familiar with these foreign words. In this way, many foreign words are accepted by the native speakers. At this point we call them borrowing or loanword. (Not all foreign words do become loanwords; if they fall out of use before they become widespread, they do not reach the loanword stage.) (1)

The reasons for English's vast borrowing

1.The invasion of England by the Vikings and the Normans;
2.Its modern importance;
3.Its being a scientific language;
4.Its development as a trade language in the 18th century;
5.The flexibility of its syllable structure. (4)

Loanwords in English

•English has many loanwords. In 1973, a computerized survey of about 80,000 words in the old Shorter Oxford Dictionary. Their estimates for the origin of English words were as follows:
•French, including Old French and early Anglo-French: 28.3%
•Latin, including modern scientific and technical Latin: 28.24%
•Germanic languages, including Old and Middle English: 25%
•Greek: 5.32%
•No etymology given or unknown: 4.03%
•Derived from proper names: 3.28%
•All other language contributed less than 1% (5)

Rhymes with loanwords

Examples:

absurd, bean curd, begird, bellbird, blackbird, bluebird, boobird, buzzword, byword, catbird, catchword, cowbird,
cowherd, crossword, cussword, engird, game bird, ghost word, goatherd, good word, guide word, headword, jailbird,
jaybird, key word, kingbird, last word, lovebird, lyrebird, my word, oilbird, password, potsherd, railbird,
rainbird, redbird, reword, ricebird, seabird, Sigurd, shorebird, snakebird, snowbird, songbird, state bird,
sunbird, surfbird, swearword, swineherd, textured, ungird, unheard, watchword, yardbird (6)

References:

(1)http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words/loanwords.html
(2)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loanword
(3)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_contact
(4)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language
(5)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_English_loanwords_by_country_or_language_of_origin
(6)http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/loanword

External Links:

(1)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loanword
(2)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language
(3)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_English_loanwords_by_country_or_language_of_origin