conjunctions.jpg
In gramma, Conjunction is a part of speech that enable us to gracefully connect two words, setences, phrases or clauses together. The word conjunction comes from conjoin, meaning “put together” (1). In logic, the symbol
for this is Λ. When two simple sentences, X and Y, are joined in a conjunction statement, the conjunction is
expressed symbollically as X Λ Y (6).






CONTENTS


Forms

Groups
Coordinating Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions
Connectors for Writing Essays

Exercises

See Also

Reference



FORMS

Conjunctions have three basic forms:
  • Single Word
    for example: and, but, because, although
  • Compound (often ending with as or that)
    for example: provided that, as long as, in order that
  • Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)
    for example: so...that

GROUPS

Conjunctions can be grouped in three main categories:

Coordinating Conjunctions

The short, simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions":
There are: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar, showing that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure (3).
啊德国队发噶的风格 noun/adj./adv./verb + noun/adj./adv./verb

TIPS It may help you remember these conjunctions by remembering the acronym FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So.
(Be careful of the words then and now; neither is a coordinating conjunction, so what we say about coordinating conjunctions' roles in a sentence and punctuation does not apply to those two words. The word For is a coordinating conjunction when it means because. ) (2) (8)

POSITION
Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. (3)


COMMA AND COORDINATING CONJUNCTION (8)
Coordinating conjuction can be used to make up a compound sentence, and in this case, be sure that a comma precedes the coordinating conjunction.
Also the word Because is not a coordinating conjuction and it should not closely follow a comma in a sentence.

for (gives a reason) adsfadsfdfdfdafsgsdgfsdgfdsgfdsgf We could not go, for it was raining.
and (adds) adsfdsafdasfdfdfdfdsfdfdfdfdsfdfdfdsaf She likes to sing, and she does it well.
The sentence below has no comma:
because dgfdgsdfhshfhhshshshshshshsdgfdsgfds She likes him because he is good-looking and funny

to see more details in When to/ Not to punctuate coordinating conjunctions

EXAMPLES
(1)Coordinating Conjunctions connects two things of the same kind: (3)
two NOUNS
cats and dogs
two VERBS
kicks or screams
two ADJECTIVES
short and sweet
two ADVERBS
quickly but carefully
two INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Dylan writes better songs, but Britney Spears sells more records.

(2)Specific meaning of different coordinating conjunctions: (5)
AND is used to join or add words together in the sentence
They ate and drank.
OR is used to show choice or possibilities as in the sentence
He will be here on Monday or Tuesday.
BUT is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas
She is small but strong.
SO is used to show result as in the sentence
I was tired so I went to sleep.

ATTENTION
These words mentioned above are not the only coordinating conjunctions, there are many others like "and nor" (Br.E), "but nor" (Br.E), "or nor"(Br.E), "neither" ("They don't gamble; neither do they smoke"), "no more" ("They don't gamble; no more do they smoke"), and "only" (---"Can we perform?" ---"Only if we practise"). (2)


Correlative Conjunctions


Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. The pairs
usually travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated equal grammartically .
Here is a brief list of common correlative conjunctions. (9)
both . . . and
neither . . . nor
not only . . . but
whether . . . or
also
as . . . as
not . . . but
either . . . or

EXAMPLES (2)
§ Either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office.
§ Not only is he handsome but he is also brilliant.
§ Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well.
§ Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well.
§ Whether you stay or go is your decision.


Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction combines an independent clause with a dependent one, and the conjunction makes the dependent clause dependent. A subordinating conjunction"introduces" a subordinate clause. A subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. Thus, two structures are possible. We can use subordinating conjunctions to correct run-on sentences and comma splices. We can also use them to combine sentences and make writing more concise. We should pay attention that when the subordinate clause comes at the beginning, it’s necessary to insert a comma. (10)

The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". Common subordinating conjunctions are:

after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since,
than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while etc.

POSITION
Subordinating conjuctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause. (4)

EXAMPLES (4)
(1) two possible structures of subordinate clauses.
main or
independent clause

subordinate or
dependent clause

Tom went swimming
although
it was raining.

subordinating
conjunction


Main (independent) afdasfddfsadfdsafafddadaf Subordinate (dependent)
afdgfg clause asdfdasfadsdsfa + afdsfdasfadsfdaf clause

Tom went swimming afgafdgafdgafgfgafd althought it was raining.


OR

Subordinate (dependent) adfgafdgafgafgafdgafdgafdg Main (independent)
dfgfad clause adfgadfgafdgfad + afgadfgfagfdagfgadgf clause

Although it was raining, adfgfdgafdgfgfagafagafgafdgf Tom went swimming.


(2) He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life.
(3) Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies.
(4) Unless we act now, all is lost.


CONNECTORS FOR WRITING ESSAY

In sophisticated writing, there are much more conjunctions or connectors to choose from to make an article more smooth. Below are some advice and examples for word choices concerning with conjunctions and connectors in writing an essay, mainly about using conjunctions of express cause, result and contrast.

Guidelines

Examples
so

Demand increased, so we increased production.
Because

Because the weather was bad, no one went shopping.
even though

We held the meeting even though the project leader was out of town.
so…that…

We have so many employees now that we need a larger office building.
as a result
consequently / as a consequence
because of this
for this reason
therefore
thus

The weather was very bad in January. As a result, sales in our stores were very low.
even so
however
nevertheless

It is more expensive. Even so, I think we should buy it.
contributing (before noun)
contributing to (after noun)
resulting
responsible for
due to

The resulting bad publicity caused the company to go out of business.
The delays due to the changes in the design.
as a result of
because of
on account of
in view of
in contrast to
in spite of
instead of
rather than

In spite of the risk, I think we should give it a try.
Rather than wait, we should do it now.
  1. The above list is adapted from Cases for English Business Writing (95,2006) (7)

EXERCISES
Here is a link to a funny exercise, practising the use of conjunctions.
http://www.funenglishgames.com/grammargames/conjunction.html
Printable Conjunctions Worksheet for ESL
http://www.esltower.com/GRAMMARSHEETS/conjunction/conjunctions.html**
Conjunction Crossword Puzzle
http://iteslj.org/cw/1/vm-conj.html**
http://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/conj01.html

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SEE ALSO
(1) The Case of Then and Than
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm**
(2) How to punctuate coordinating conjunctions
http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/CoordConj.html**
(3) Diagram Conjunctions!
http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/list-of-conjunctions.html**
(4) Disjunctions
http://www.mathwords.com/d/disjunction.htm




REFERENCE
(1) http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Writing/**
(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_conjunction**
(3) http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/conjunctions-coordinating.htm**
(4) http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/conjunctions-subordinating.htm**
(5) http://eslus.com/LESSONS/GRAMMAR/POS/pos8.htm**
(6) http://www.mathwarehouse.com/math-statements/logic-and-truth-values.php
(7) McEntire, Kelly, (2006), Cases for English Business Wrting, Hangzhou, Publication of Hangzhou College of Art,print.
(8) http://www.roch.edu/learningcenter/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Concise%20List%20of%20Words%20and%20Expl.pdf
(9) http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm
(10) http://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/index.php?category_id=2&sub_category_id=1&article_id=37