Antonyms

Antonym: it means a word opposite in meaning to another, it's opposite word is "synonym".

Eg: cheap---expensive, big----small ,old- --young

contents

1, Types of antonyms
2, Added information
3, References
4, External links

Types of antonyms

There are some types of antonyms:
1,Complementary Antonyms
Complementary Antonyms also called non-gradable antonyms. they are lexmes or expressions whose crucial semantic features are mutually exclusive.the positive of one suggests the negative of the other. such pairs are also called binary pairs or equipollent contrast. (1)Eg: pass---fail dead---alive, wisdom---foolishness, early---late, hit---miss, gentle---violent
2, Gradable Antonyms
They are pairs of words whose "crucial" semantic features are located at the different ends of one continuum.(2)the positive of one term does not necessarily imply the negative of the other. Eg: rich---poor young---old
3, Relational opposites
Pairs of words that exhibit the reversal of a relationship between the two terms are called relational opposites. The presence of one of the pair presupposes the presence of the other of the pair. (3) if we say " A borrows money from B", it presupposes " B lends money to A" Examples: wife---husband, son --- father, buy ---- sell, teach---- learn.
Added infromation
In odrer to be antonyms, the two words should be in the same semantic category. for example, old--young these two words are both refer to age. while if refer to things, the antoynym of "old" should be "new".
Not every word has it's antonym. Among the words, the adjective words own the most antonyms, the second place is verb. Most of nouns especially refer to the specific thing do not have antonyms, such as house, bottle and so on.
while some words may has sevreal antonyms according to their meaning. each word have more than one meaning. such as short, it's antonym can be long or tall.
There are also some idioms use antonyms.
1,More haste, less speed.
2, Every tide has it's ebb.
3, Adversity leads to prosperity.
4,Joy and sorrow are next-door neighbors.

References:

(1)http://wenku.baidu.com/view/67c6a43283c4bb4cf7ecd16f.html

(2) Yang Xinzhang. An Introduction to Linguistics.Beijing: Higher Education Press,2010.Print
(3)http://www.modlinguistics.com/ModernLinguistics/Englishcoaching/chapter5.8.htm

External links

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/antonym

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/antonym
http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/antonymsterms.htm
http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0089382.html